What is diabetes insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus is the condition that causes the body to make too much urine that causes an imbalance of water in the body. This usually occurs when there are problems with a hormone called “anti-diuretic hormone,”. “Anti-diuretic hormone helps balance the amount of fluid in the body. However it must be noted that diabetes insipidus can occur without having diabetes. In fact, the DI condition can occur in anyone.
Diabetes Insipidus Types :
There are 2 kinds of diabetes insipidus:
- Central diabetes insipidus
This is also called as “Cranial diabetes insipidus”. In people with central diabetes insipidus, the body doesn’t make enough anti-diuretic hormone to keep the amount of fluid in balance. This is the most common type of the diabetes insipidus.
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
In people with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the body makes enough anti-diuretic hormone, but the kidneys don’t respond to it. It can be caused by kidney damage or, in some cases, inherited.
Diabetes insipidus should not be confused with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that most people know simply as “diabetes.” Some of the symptoms, like urinating a lot, are the same, however, they are very different conditions.
Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms:
What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus?
The symptoms are:
- Needing to urinate often, sometimes in the middle of the night
- Making large amounts of urine
- Feeling very thirsty
Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosis:
Is there a test for diabetes insipidus?
A Doctor will be able to tell you that you have the DI condition based on your symptoms. But in some cases, doctors will need to do tests. Your doctor may use some tests for diagnosis, Like:
- Fluid Deprivation Test
In this test we measure, how much urine your body makes. You stop drinking fluids for 2 to 3 hours. Then the doctor records how much urine you make over the next 2 hours or longer.
Tests to measure certain substances in your urine. A patient collects the urine sample in a special container and then the sample is send to the lab for calculating the concentration of the urine. If you suffer from DI, your urinalysis will have a high concentration of water and a low concentration of other waste. The test actually show whether the urine is dilute or concentrated.
- Blood Tests
A blood test involves drawing a patient’s blood and then the sample is send to the lab to measure the sodium levels, which help to diagnose the diabetes insipidus.
To find the type of diabetes insipidus, doctor might give you a drug. Your body’s response will help reveal which type of diabetes insipidus you have.
Diabetes Insipidus Treatment:
How is diabetes insipidus treated?
The right treatment plan for you will depend on what kind of diabetes insipidus you have and the severity of your condition of diabetes insipidus. In general, all the treatments for diabetes insipidus work by reducing the amount of urine the body makes.
Following a diet plan that is low in salt and protein might help control your symptoms, If you suffer from central diabetes insipidus,. If diet plan does not help you enough. The doctor may prescribe a medicine called desmopressin. You can take this medicine as a nasal spray, a pill, or injection. This medicine replaces the anti-diuretic hormone missing from your body. Always regulate your water intake, while taking this medication. You should never take the medicine without the consulting your doctor.
People who have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus have different treatment options. In this form of diabetes insipidus, the kidneys usually aren’t responding to anti-diuretic hormone because they are damaged. Hence taking steps to balance the amount of calcium or potassium in your body may resolve the problem. If possible, treating the other health problem or stopping the medicines may help because sometimes kidney damage is caused by other health problems or the medicines. Doctors also might recommend a low-salt, low-protein diet.
A class of diuretics called thiazides reduces urine production and helps patients’ kidneys concentrate urine. Aspirin or ibuprofen also helps reduce urine volume.
Is there anything I can do on my own to feel better?
Yes. You can take few steps to feel better.
You should eat a diet that is low in sodium and protein. These diet changes will help you make less urine.
Another helpful tip is called “double voiding.” This involves urinating more than once to empty your bladder. After you urinate, wait 10 to 15 minutes, and then urinate again to empty your bladder completely.